Articles

Different Ways of Treatment Regarding Root Knot Nematodes

by New User Professional User
Nematocides are substances that have nematocidal effects. For root knot nematodes treatment, numerous such chemicals are advised. Nematocides exhibit a variety of chemical and biological processes as well as behaviours in soil.

Nematocides come in two broad categories: fumigants and non-fumigants. They can be classified chemically as organophosphates, methyl isothiocyanate liberators, and halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Treatments for Nematicides: Nematocides are available as liquids, emulsifiable concentrates, or granules for application as soil fumigants. Nematocides are applied to the soil by broadcasting the chemical uniformly across the entire field or by administering it to the rows where the crop will be grown (row treatment).

Highly volatile Nematocides need to be promptly covered with polyethylene sheeting and kept there for at least 48 hours. The easiest way to fumigate small areas is to use a hand applicator to inject the chemical or sprinkle small amounts of granules into holes 15 cm deep and 15–30 cm apart, then immediately fill the gaps with dirt.

To prevent plant damage, at least two weeks must pass after pre-plant soil fumigation with phytotoxic nematocides before sowing or planting in the field. 

A more thorough investigation is required to identify the circumstances in which nematicidal administration is needed and beneficial, strategies for lowering treatment costs, and the economics of chemical control. The effectiveness and applicability of systemic nematicides for the circumstances require increasing study.

These chemicals can potentially eliminate the need for field applications, hence lowering the cost, through treatment of nursery beds, bare root dipping of transplants, and seed treatment.

1. Chloropicrin: Trichloronitromethane Is A Common Pesticide
These days, this substance's nematicidal, fungicidal, and herbicidal qualities are well known. Because of its relatively high vapor pressure, chloropicrin works best when it is contained in the soil by being covered with impervious surfaces, such as traps. Its usage has been restricted in the management of nematodes because of its expensive cost.

2. Bromide of Methyl: Methyl bromide has been proven to be a successful nematocide through export. Except for particular crops of high value, the chemical has only occasionally been used as a nematocide. Methyl bromide has a low boiling point and a high vapor pressure. Since the vapours are highly harmful to humans, extra caution must be used to prevent breathing them.

3. D-D Concoction: The nematocidal abilities of the 1, 3-dichloropropene-1, 2-dichloropropane mixture (D-D mixture) were demonstrated by a scientist (1943). Due to its lower vapor pressure than chloropicrin and methyl bromide, the D-D mixture does not require impermeable coverings or water seals.

4. (1, 2-Dibromoethane) Ethylene Dibromide: A scientist noted 1945 that ethylene d-bromide had provided reasonable root-knot nematode control in the soil. Two other scholars (1955) claimed that D B C P (1, 2 dibromo-3-chloropropane) was a nematicide. According to Allen et al. (1955), the substance works well as a nematocide.

Non-fumigant Compounds: The invention of several compounds that could be used as chemotherapeutic agents to treat nematode control was prompted by the need for novel systemic insecticides. At the quantities needed for field control, they are often not phytotoxic. They have a significant downside in that animals are highly toxic to them.

Water helps these substances spread throughout the soil. Only the narrow root zone is subject to nematicidal activity. Nematicidal activity typically results from narcosis and behavioral change rather than nematode killing. An increase in the nematode population can be temporarily slowed or stopped by interfering with nematode infection, development, and reproduction.

In many countries, chemical nematode treatment has yet to progress, mainly because nematodes are expensive and difficult to apply across broad regions, and few people are aware of the problem.
Despite the high initial costs of nematicides, there is mounting proof that they can be effectively used on a limited number of crops, including wheat and barley in badly infested fields, cotton, sugarcane, citrus, grape vine, potato, and grapes.

Hygienic Procedures: They include thoroughly cleaning all equipment before bringing it into an area that is not contaminated, taking precautions to avoid introducing nematodes into a field using contaminated nursery stock, seed, containers, etc., and keeping the soil free of host plants that rob nematodes of roots on which to feed.

Flooding: Some nematode species depend on a certain level of soil aeration and have evolved to live in typical soil with a specific moisture content. These nematodes die after being submerged in water for several months, clearing the land of the disease. However, only a few fields may be flooded for extended periods, making the usefulness of this control mechanism relatively constrained.

Conclusion: Predator Method
Even though straightforward observations have demonstrated that predaceous species of nematodes exist in the soil and can be used to consume the parasitic forms, more research still needs to be done in this area. However, it has been shown that a variety of hematophagous fungal species are efficient in eliminating nematodes, and they can be promoted in the soil by organic soil amendments, such as the addition of decomposable vegetable matter.


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About New User Junior   Professional User

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Joined APSense since, March 6th, 2023, From New Delhi, India.

Created on Oct 18th 2023 05:17. Viewed 107 times.

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