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Inoculation of groundnut seed: Summary

by New User Professional User

Inoculation with Rhizobium

For regions where groundnut is not typically produced, it is advised to inoculate groundnut seed with effective strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In regions where groundnut is traditionally produced, no response to inoculation of groundnut seed is seen. In these places, the essential nodule bacteria are often present in the soil, therefore inoculation has little impact on crop output.

The majority of drugs used to treat seeds to fend off bacterial and fungal diseases also kill the bacteria that cause inoculation, making artificial inoculation useless.

Therefore, seed inoculation and seed fungicide treatment usually oppose one another. When both are necessary, it is possible to spray the rhizobium culture onto the seed row before covering it with soil and treating the seed with fungicide.

Additionally, rhizobium strains in granules can be seeded with seeds. 1-2 mm sand particles are inoculated with peat inoculum using methyl cellulose as a sticker to create granular inoculum, which is then applied to the seed.

The following techniques can be used to inject rhizobium into seed:

Slurry technique

5 g of jaggery is dissolved in 95 ml of water to create a 5% jaggery slurry. 800 cc of slurry is required to treat 100 kg of seeds.

The cold slurry is mixed with 200 grammes of peat-based rhizobium culture. The slurry is poured uniformly over the seed and spread gently over the seed without rupturing the surface on which the seed is equally distributed.

The seeds are then dried, not in the sun, but in the shade. After being completely dried, the seeds are ready for use.

Pelleting

800 ml of 5% cold jaggery slurry is combined with 200 g of peat-based culture.

100 kg of seed can be treated with this. The seed is evenly dispersed, then the slurry is poured over it, and the seed is then rolled in the slurry.

To achieve a homogeneous coating, 200 g of finely powdered calcium carbonate are placed over the seed while it is still moist. You can use pelleted seed after drying it in the shade.

Trickle technique

A hopper and bamboo tube are used to drip-feed the suspension of 400 g of peat-based rhizobium culture into seed rows. Each acre just needs around 50 litres.

Increasing productivity: Steps to Take

A total of four categories can be used to classify all advised productivity-boosting measures:

use better varieties

enhanced seeding techniques adoption

applying fertilisers and manures

Pests are successfully managed

The yield will grow by around 15% to 20% above the native land races if better varieties suited to the region are wisely chosen. India has so far approved 50 different types of groundnut, 10 of which are hybrids.

The cost of seeds can account for between 37 and 50% of the overall cost of groundnut seed treatment and farming. To get the most out of this investment, it is crucial to adhere to better planting techniques.

Low plant population is one of the major factors affecting yields of groundnut. It's important to choose seeds carefully. After harvest, the previous crop's pods must be dried in the shade until the moisture content reaches 10% for this purpose.

The viability of the seed is decreased by drying in the intense sun. It is necessary to choose and shell bold pods. It is necessary to discard seeds that are cracked, sick, or wrinkled.

According to studies, seeds that pass through a 5 mm filter and are kept generate vigourous seedlings and a high yield. Dithane M-45 seed treatment only costs Rs. 12 to 16 per acre. However, because of the effective suppression of soil- and seed-borne fungus, the advantage is larger since a bigger population is achieved than in the control.

Because the seed is sown at the ideal depth, which results in greater yields, sowing in lines with a seed drill provides a bigger population. To control seed rate and quickly cover wide areas, line sowing is done with seed drills.

Utilising intercultivation tools is permitted while line sowing. The native bullock-drawn seed drills can cover 1 to 2 hectares in a day, but their use calls for great expertise and experience. The mechanical seed drill pulled by a bullock is unquestionably an upgrade over the indigenous seed drills.

There can be a range of row spacings. Attaching a beam behind the drill will allow the seed to be covered.

The cost of sowing is decreased by using this drill. A significant pest that affects plant populations is the root grub. Phorate, carbofuran, or sevidol granules applied to the soil efficiently suppress this pest, but the cost per hectare varies from Rs. 318 to Rs. 675, making this an expensive investment for a dryland farmer. Develop more affordable control strategies. It is necessary to use the proper seed spacing and pace.

The seed rates suggested in India are two to three times higher than those used in the United States, Israel, Senegal, and other groundnut-growing nations.

Given the higher cost of seeds, it is necessary to review the recommendations on seed rates. A decent seed bed has to be prepared.

The physical environment of the soil has a significant impact, particularly throughout the stages of pod formation and peg penetration. In sandy clay loams, peg penetration and pod growth are prevented when there is a lengthy dry period brought on by a significant gap between rainfall because the soil becomes extremely hard in the top 5 cm of the soil column.

Studies have revealed that peg penetration and pod growth are significantly slowed down when bulk density is 1.65 g/cc or higher.

These factors have not been fully examined, and farmers have not been advised to use management techniques to stop the surface soil from hardening.

The soil will not become hard if farmyard manure, compost, groundnut shell powder, or gypsum are used. Manure and fertiliser applications boost production, however farmers are hesitant to apply fertilisers owing to the unpredictable nature of rainfall. If production is to be increased, fertilisers must be used.

Compost or farmyard manure is necessary to improve the soil's physical state. In addition to providing micronutrients like iron and zinc, it also aids in the improvement of rhizobium proliferation in the soil. It is advantageous to apply 10 t/ha of farmyard manure.

Groundnut plants may fix up to 200 kg of atmospheric nitrogen per hectare in their root nodules under ideal circumstances.

The cultivar, rhizobium strain, soil temperature, soil moisture, and nutrients all affect how much nitrogen is fixed.

Conditions are frequently not favourable for the rainfed groundnut crop to fix the maximum amount of nitrogen. Additionally, the nodules develop 15 days after sowing and only become active 30 days later, at which point the nitrogen fixed in the nodules becomes accessible.

Therefore, the rainfed groundnut crop needs a beginning dosage of 10 kg N/ha.

After 30 days, it is possible to randomly choose a few plants from the field and count and evaluate the efficiency of their root nodules.

When nodules are sliced open, their pink coloration suggests efficacy. Applying 10 kg N/ha as top dressing is required if the root nodules are insufficient in terms of quantity, size, and effectiveness.

Only when the amount of accessible phosphorus in the soil is less than 35 kgP2O5/ha is it necessary to add phosphorus fertiliser. The finest supply of phosphorus is single superphosphate since it contains 50% gypsum, supplies 19.5% calcium, 12.5% sulphur, and other groundnut-required elements like zinc and magnesium.

There is no need to administer potassium until the soil has a K2O content of less than 150 kg/ha.

For phosphorus and potassium-deficient soils, 50 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K2O will be sufficient. However, the dose must be chosen depending on the results of the soil test.

Pops are caused by a calcium deficiency. Oil can only be biosynthesized with sulphur.

Calcium enhances the physical properties of the soil, promotes seed germination, and lowers respiration, pod rot, rust, and seedling blight occurrence.

The cheapest source of calcium and sulphate is gypsum. 29.20 percent calcium and 18.60 percent sulphur are included in it.

The roots' absorption of calcium is not transferred to the growing pods. The pegs and pods absorb calcium and sulphur as they grow.

Therefore, calcium must be made accessible in the pod zone, which is located 5 cm or less below the soil's surface.

The pod zone requires 3 meq of accessible calcium per 100g of soil. 100 g of soil typically contains 2 meq of accessible calcium on average.

500 kg/ha of gypsum are required to provide 1 meq of accessible calcium per 100 g of soil in 0–5 cm of soil depth. Gypsum powder needs to be placed to the plant's foundation. Zinc shortage in groundnut soils is frequently observed, and for rainfed groundnut, it may be remedied by applying 50 kg/ha of zinc sulphate once every three years.

If used as a preventative strategy, plant protection methods do not pay off every year.

For each pest, the threshold levels must be identified, and the appropriate pest management action must only be used when this level is achieved.

Only the rainfed crop can receive the required dust compositions. Despite the fact that adopting plant protection measures pays off, the cost is high and the dryland farmer is hesitant to make the investment. There must be developed less expensive pest control techniques.


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Joined APSense since, March 6th, 2023, From New Delhi, India.

Created on Apr 26th 2023 02:01. Viewed 118 times.

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