Kidney Stones: Types and Their Treatment

by Dr Aman Gupta Doctor

Kidney stones also are known as renal lithiasis or nephrolithiasis is a very common kidney condition that is quite prevalent in India. In India, around 12% of people suffer from the incidence of kidney stones annually. Kidney stones are the hard, mineralised deposits of certain salts that build up inside your kidney. Kidney stones are more likely to form when the concentrated urine allows the minerals to deposit, stick together and crystallize over time. These stones are usually harmless, however, when they get stuck in the urinary passage and are unable to pass out can result in extreme pain and discomfort. Depending upon how severe your condition is you may either need only the medications and plenty of fluids or might more elaborate kidney stone treatment such as surgery. Know more about kidney stones, their symptoms, causes, risk factors, types and the right treatment for them.

Symptoms of kidney stones

  • Severe pain in the back or sides

  • Persistent urge to urinate

  • Urinating more often than usual

  • Urinating small amounts

  • Pain radiating towards the lower abdomen and groin

  • Intense pain that comes in waves and fluctuates

  • Pain during urination

  • Change in urine colour

  • Foul-smelling or cloudy urine

  • Nausea and vomiting

Risk factors

Dehydration: people who do not consume enough water daily are at an increased risk of developing kidney stones.

Family history of kidney stones: if someone in your family has kidney stones earlier then you are at a high risk of having kidney stones as well.

Diet: certain diets that are high in protein, sodium and sugar can aggravate the risk of kidney stones in some individuals.

Obesity: greater waist size, higher BMI has been linked with a higher risk of kidney stones.

Other medical conditions: Some medical conditions such as cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, and tubular acidosis increases the risk of kidney acidosis.

Types of kidney stones

Calcium stones:  these are the most common type of kidney stones that usually appear in the form of calcium oxalate. Your diet, high doses of vitamin D, certain metabolic disorders and intestinal bypass surgery can elevate the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine. calcium phosphate is the other type of calcium stones. This type of stone is more common in metabolic conditions, like renal tubular acidosis.

Uric acid stones: Uric acid stones can form in people who are dehydrated and don't drink enough water or other fluids. It can also occur in those who consume a high-protein diet or someone who suffers from a certain medical condition like gout. Genetic factors also have a huge role to play in increasing your risk of uric acid stones.

Struvite stones: Struvite stones usually appear in response to an infection, such as a urinary tract infection. These stones grow rapidly and become quite large without any prior symptom.

Cystine stones: These stones usually appears in people having a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to excrete an excessive amount of certain amino acids (cystinuria).

Treatment of kidney stones

After you have undergone diagnosis with blood tests, urine tests or X-rays next comes the right treatment for your condition. Various treatment for kidney stones are

For smaller stones

For stones that are quite small in size and does not cause any serious symptoms can be treated by

Drinking plenty of fluids: Drinking at least 2L of water can greatly help in flushing out the stones from your system.

Medications: for smaller stones, you are generally prescribed pain relievers and alpha blockers for the relaxation of muscles in the ureter.  

For larger stones

Stones that are much larger in size cannot be treated by the methods described above


Extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a popular technique of breaking down the bigger stones into smaller ones. The procedure lasts usually for  45 to 60 minutes and can result in moderate pain, however, you are under sedation or light anaesthesia for making you feel comfortable.


For removing a smaller stone in your ureter or kidney, your doctor will pass a thin lighted tube known as ureteroscope that is equipped with a camera through your urethra and bladder to your ureter. Once the stone is located, appropriate tools can trap the stone or break it into pieces that can easily in your urine. Your doctor will then place a small tube known as a stent in the ureter to promote healing and give relief swelling.


Surgery is often the last resort when it comes to treating kidney stones. If you too are looking for the best kidney stone removal in Delhi then Dr. Aman Gupta is the right name for you. Book an appointment with Dr. Aman Gupta today.

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About Dr Aman Gupta Junior   Doctor

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Joined APSense since, March 16th, 2019, From new delhi, India.

Created on Apr 22nd 2019 02:15. Viewed 522 times.


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