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Jacketed Piping Systems: Key Considerations for Improving System Efficiencies

by Engineering Geek Expert in industrial engineering including piping,
Unlike standard process piping, jacketed piping systems are much more complex as they have a double-walled network for transporting highly viscous fluids. And so, they need special attention during the designing and installation phase. 

Jacketed piping ideally comprises 4 key components:  

  1. Core Pipe: This is the central pipe which is smaller than the jacketed pipe and carries the fluid from one point to another.
  2. Jacket Pipe: This pipe is larger than the core pipe and carries blazing hot steam from one point to another. 
  3. Guide Plate: Spider or spacer is installed for supporting the core pipe and to ensure a uniform gap between the jacket and core pipes. 
  4. Steam Feeder: This tapping connection is provided in the jacket pipe to create a path for the steam inlet & outlet.
 
Types of Jacketed Piping

Depending on the nature and purpose of the jacket pipe, it can be classified into two different types. 

  • Continuous Jacketing: In this type, all the components including valves, fittings, branch connections, flanges including the entire length of the pipe are completely covered by the jacket pipe.
  • Discontinuous Jacketing: This type comprises only straight lengths of the core pipe. It does not include any elbows, fittings, branch connections, tees, and valves.  

Important Points to Consider When Designing a Jacketed Piping Network

  • Fluid Pressure: The fluid running in the main pipe must be operable at a pressure lower than the fluid flowing through the jacketed pipe. This is needed to ensure that in case of an unexpected failure in the core piping process, the fluid is contained in place and does not end up flowing outside of the system.  
  • Location of the Feeder Inlet Port: The location of the inlet and outlet varies depending on the media chosen for jacket piping. In the case of liquid medium, the feeder post should ideally be at the lowest point in the jacket for the inlet and the highest point for the outlet. This is needed to ensure that the jacket is filled with media before it leaves the system. But, in the case of gaseous media (steam), the inlet port should be placed at the highest point while the outlet should be at the lowest point. 
  • Direction of Flow: The direction of the flow of fluids in the jacket and core pipes should be exactly the opposite. It ensures the desired rate of heating or cooling for the product that is flowing in the core pipe.
  • Slope: A jacketed pipe should ideally be installed with a certain slope. Depending on the viscosity and density of the fluid flowing in the core pipe, this slope helps drain the process fluid completely. 
  • Breaks and Joints in Continuity: Any jacketed pipe needs to be designed while keeping a minimum number of joints and break-up flanges. Every break whether it is in the core pipe or jacket pipe costs more due to material requirements and maintenance of the system. 
  • Annular Spacing between Jacket & Core: The annular spacing between the jacket and core pipes is needed to optimize the piping system to prevent the fluid from either scalding or solidifying the material of the pipe. 
  • Pipe flexibility and stress analysis: Due to extreme operating pressures and temperatures in the core and the jacketed pipes, stress is developed in the system. This can result in unexpected failure of the piping network and for this reason, stress analysis is recommended to ensure pipe flexibility under varied conditions. 
  • System Layout & Components: While designing any jacketed piping network, the following points must be considered: 
       1. Types of section connectors that are to be used 
       2. Possibility of expansion and thermal differences between the jacket pipe material and core pipe material 
       3. The possibility of rusting on both the jacket side and core of the pipe 
       4. The need for installation of guide strips and internal supports between the core and jacket
       5. The need for a turbulence mechanism in the pipe such as wraps, fins, or disruptors.  

Common Applications of Jacketed Piping

Jacketed piping has a limited but vital role to play in processing industries where it is essential to maintain a specific temperature throughout the transportation of fluid from one point to another. Highlighted below as some applications of jacketed piping: 

  1. In vegetable oil manufacturing units, to maintain uniform fluidity throughout the piping system 
  2. In a sulfuric acid plant that transports molten sulfur 
  3. In an oxygen generation plant for transporting liquid oxygen 
  4. In merchant ships to prevent clogging of pipes due to extremely low temperatures 
  5. In piping systems that pass through cold regions   

Plant managers and process engineers looking to improve system efficiencies can consider the assistance of an experienced engineering design agency. Such agencies specialize in pipe flexibility and stress analysis and are fully equipped to conduct fitness and compliance assessments.

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About Engineering Geek Junior   Expert in industrial engineering including piping,

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Joined APSense since, November 20th, 2019, From Seattle, United States.

Created on Dec 21st 2021 04:02. Viewed 287 times.

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