Your Ultimate Guide to Chicago Style Citations

by Emily Moore Writer

Chicago style is a system used by researchers to structure their written work and references. Researchers have two options to choose from when they’re ready to reference work in this style. They can either choose to format their references using the “Notes and Bibliography” system or the “Author-Date” system. Instead of Chicago in-text citations, Notes and Bibliography uses footnotes or endnotes. A bibliography is also found at the very end of the paper. At the footer of the page, readers locate the superscript number and view the reference information. Endnotes are found at the end of the chapter. They are similar to footnotes in that they use superscript numbers like this¹. Writers may choose to use footnotes OR endnotes in their paper.

The Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition, was created to help researchers properly cite their sources. There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1). Notes and Bibliography and 2). Author-Date. This guide displays the Notes and Bibliography style of referencing. 

Chicago's Notes and Bibliography formatting requires writers to use footnotes and endnotes when using in-text citations. These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work. When a source is used in a research paper, a roman numeral is placed at the end of the borrowed information as superscript (it is smaller than the normal line of text and raised). That number correlates with a footnote or endnote.

§ Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page

§ Endnotes are added at the end of the chapter or project

§ A footnote or endnote contains the complete citation information.

§ The matching number in the footnote or endnote is normal sized and not raised.

§ It is up to the discretion of the writer either to place the citation at the bottom of the page where the superscript is placed (a footnote) or to place all citations together at the end of the work (endnotes).

The latest manual of Chicago citation style, released in 2017, is the 17th edition. It features many modifications, clarifications, and updates. One of the biggest updates is the inclusion of URL strings in references displaying a DOI number. In addition, numerous technology-related sources, such as social media platforms and apps, now have specific structures in place. Lastly, the use of the Latin abbreviation, ibid., which translates to “in the same place,” was once placed in footnotes to mark a repetitive source. Now, writers are encouraged to use shortened footnotes for repetitive sources, rather than “ibid.” The use of ibid. can be confusing for readers. Presenting a shortened footnote, displaying the author’s name, title, and date, allows readers to clearly see and understand the origin of a source.

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About Emily Moore Innovator   Writer

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Joined APSense since, September 20th, 2019, From New York City, United States.

Created on Mar 25th 2020 04:43. Viewed 176 times.


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