Articles

The Scientific Purpose and Significance of Animal Models

by Julie Roberts Marketing Director

About animal model

The animal model, also known as the animal disease model, is mainly used for experimental physiology, experimental pathology, and experimental therapeutics (including screening of new drugs). The development of human diseases is very complicated. The human body is used as an experimental object to deeply explore the mechanism of disease occurrence, and the development of medicine is slow. The experience of clinical accumulation is not only limited in time and space, but also many experiments are morally. And methods are also limited. With the indirect study of animal models, it is possible to consciously change the factors that are impossible or difficult to exclude under natural conditions, in order to more accurately observe the experimental results of the model and compare them with human diseases, which is more convenient and more convenient. Effectively understand the law of the occurrence and development of human diseases and study prevention and control measures.

Significance of animal models

It can be copied from some clinical diseases, such as radiation sickness, poison gas poisoning, severe infectious diseases, trauma, and tumors. There are also some diseases such as hereditary, immune, metabolic and endocrine, blood, etc., which develop slowly, have a long incubation period, and have a long course of disease. It may be several years or decades, and it is difficult to carry out continuous observation for more than 3 generations in the human body. People can deliberately select animals with high morbidity in animal populations, and replicate various models through different means. Repeated observation and research under artificially designed experimental conditions can even observe for dozens of generations, and avoid human body experiments damage.

Animal models can be sampled as needed as "replicas" of human diseases. Samples can be collected at any time according to the needs of the researcher or samples can be collected in batches to understand the whole process of the disease, which is difficult to achieve in clinical practice.

Comparable general diseases occur in a variety of ways. In the same period, it is difficult to obtain a certain amount of qualitative materials, and the model animals are not only easily satisfied in the number of groups, but also can strictly control the experimental conditions in the methodological conditions. And when genetic, microbiological, nutrient and other factors are strictly controlled, the variable factors of the experiment are limited by the action of physical, chemical or biological factors, and the influence of other factors in the research process is excluded, and a large number of conditions are obtained. Model materials to improve the comparability and repeatability of experimental results, so that the results obtained are more accurate and deeper.

It is helpful to fully understand the nature of the disease. It is inevitable that the nature of the disease is clinically limited. Many pathogens can cause infections in a variety of animals in addition to humans, and their signs and symptoms may not be identical. However, by comparing zoonotic diseases, it is possible to fully understand the various hazards brought by the same pathogen to different organisms, and to raise the research work to a three-dimensional level to reveal the nature of a certain disease.

Therefore, a good animal disease model should have the following characteristics:

1. Reproducible, should reproduce the human disease to be studied, animal disease performance should be similar to human disease.

2. Animal background information is complete, and the life cycle meets the needs of the experiment.

3. High replication rate.

4. Specificity is good, that is, one method can only copy one model.

It should be pointed out that any animal model cannot completely replicate all the manifestations of human diseases. Animals are not human beings after all. Model experiments are only an indirect study, which may only be similar to human diseases in one part or one aspect. Therefore, the correctness of the conclusions of the model experiments is relative and must ultimately be verified on the human body. Once a phenomenon different from human disease is found in the process of replication, the nature and extent of the difference must be analyzed to find similarities and differences in order to be properly assessed.

Design Principles

The design of biomedical research is often considered in the design of animal models, because many experiments that clarify the mechanisms of disease and efficacy may not or should not be performed on patients. Often rely on replicating animal models, but must be carefully designed, following the following principles when designing.

1. Similarity

A human disease model is replicated in animals. The purpose is to find out the relevant laws that can be generalized (extrapolated) applied to patients. Extra polation takes risks because animals and people are not a creature. For example, drugs that are ineffective on animals are not equivalent to clinical ineffectiveness, and vice versa. Therefore, an important principle in the design of animal disease models is that the replicated model should be as close as possible to the human disease.

2. Repeatability

Ideal animal models should be repeatable and even standardized. For example, a one-time quantitative bloodletting method can cause hemorrhagic shock and 100% death, which is consistent with repeatability and standardization requirements.

3. Reliability

The replicated animal model should strive to reliably reflect human diseases, that is, to specifically and reliably reflect a disease or a certain function, metabolism, structural changes, and should have the main symptoms and signs of the disease, after testing or X-ray Photographs, electrocardiograms, pathological sections, etc. confirmed. If some animals with corresponding lesions are spontaneously present, they should not be used. It is not suitable for patients who are prone to cause diseases that are confused with replication diseases.

4. Applicability and controllability

Animal models for medical experimental research should be considered in the future clinical application and easy to control the development of their diseases in order to facilitate the research.

5. Easy and economical

When replicating animal models, the methods used should be as easy to implement and economical as possible. In addition to the consideration of the principles of mobility and economy in animal selection, this principle should also be noted in the methods of model replication and the observation of indicators.

About author

Creative Animodel is specialized in providing in vivo pharmacology services to evaluate drug candidates in various disease models. Its disease models are fully validated to ensure the accuracy, reproducibility and consistency of outcomes. A broad range of animal species are available to meet specific needs, such as non-human primates (NHP), murine, rabbits and dogs. Partnering with Creative Animodel will accelerate researchers’ projects of drug discovery and development.


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About Julie Roberts Innovator   Marketing Director

25 connections, 0 recommendations, 80 honor points.
Joined APSense since, July 24th, 2018, From Los Angeles, United States.

Created on Jul 26th 2018 01:44. Viewed 126 times.

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