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Textile Finishing - Changes The Usability and Functionality of the Woven Fabric

by Rich Blogger Blogger By Profession


The woven fabric is not usable unless it goes through the process of finishing which improves the look, feel, and performance of the fabric to be used for making clothing on a small or large level.

All the mechanical and chemical processes that the woven fabric undergoes to increase its functionality fall under the main process of Textile finishing. Functionality is not just limited to the feel and look of fabric, but can also be extended to other features like the ability to remain crease-free or having water repellence features.

Textile finishing - Methods

Broadly the process of textile finishing can be done in 2 ways:

1.     Mechanical finishing:

·       The process of mechanical finishing utilizes the application of any of the physical principles such as pressure, temperature, tension, or friction.

·       One example is the shearing and napping process that gives the woven fabric a warm and soft feel to be used for making winter blankets and fleece jackets.

·       Many different techniques are involved in the mechanical finishing process.

·       Calendering is one such technique that is used to create glazed surfaces by passing the fabric between heated steel rollers.

2.     Chemical finishing:

·       In chemical finishing, different chemicals like bleach are applied to the fabric to improve its functionality.

·       Bleach can be used to remove any unwanted colors from the final fabric by the process of oxidation.

·       The use of alkali solution through the process of Mercerizing gives the cotton fabrics desired luster and strength.

·       Chemical finishing can also be done to soften or stiffen the fabrics.

·       Some forms of chemical finishes impart different features to a fabric such as soil repellent, anti-microbial, moth protection, flame retardant, etc.

·       Such fabrics are used in specific industries because of their improved functionality.

However, chemical finishing cannot be done on every woven fabric. The fibers of the fabric should be suitable for the particular type of finishing as they can change the strength and properties of the final fabric. Also, the chemicals used should be environmentally safe, should not reduce the storage life of the fabric, and should not cause any yellowing.

Three main finishes that almost every fabric goes through are:

  • Washing to clear away any manufacturing dust from the fabric. It can also include the process of bleaching and scouring if desired.
  • For cotton fabrics, mercerizing is an important step to increase its strength and make its surface more suitable for dying.
  • The second process in line is drying the washed fabric.
  • Lastly, the fabric is stabilized to ensure that there is no shrinkage and the surface of the fabric is well settled. 

Different textile finishing machines are used for fulfilling specific finishing purposes. Some examples of such finishing machines include film coating machines, blade type machines, or insulation finishing machines.

While the mechanical process does not produce any effect on the fabric’s elemental composition, the chemical finishing process changes the composition while keeping the appearance of the fabric similar to the one that was originally woven. The fabric appearance might get altered with mechanical finishing, however.

Thus, the type of finishing required by the woven fabric completely depends on the requirement and features that a piece of fabric should possess and also on the final intended design requirement.


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About Rich Blogger Freshman   Blogger By Profession

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Joined APSense since, January 26th, 2016, From NY, United States.

Created on Nov 27th 2021 03:10. Viewed 160 times.

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