Multiple Myeloma-Plasma cancerby Austin Wilson Marketing Executive Multiple Myeloma also known as plasma cells cancer leads to enormous amount of production of white blood cells in the blood. These cells are present in bone marrow and responsible for production of antibodies.
Cancerous growth and multiplication of WBCs leads to increase in the level of antibodies .These antibodies are crucial to protect body from external attacks. But excessive production has adverse effects on the body. These cells can spread from bone marrow to other parts of body. They damage other organs by out numbering healthy cells. The ability of myeloma cells to translocate gave the disease its name.
A high level of calcium in blood causing excessive thirst, nausea, constipation, loss of appetite.
1. Kidney (renal) failure
3. Weight loss
4. Bone damage and fractures
6.Weakness of limbs
1.Genetic abnormalities in plasma cells.
2. Missing or abnormal chromosome 13
3. Defective or translocated Chromosome 14
4. Hyperdiploidy- extra copies of some chromosomes.
1. Age more than 50
2. History of a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)-abnormal production of M protein by plasma cells.
4. Exposure to radiation
1. Impaired immunity. Myeloma cells inhibit the production of antibodies needed for normal immunity.
2. Bone problems: - Erosion of brains and increased possibility of fractures. It can cause compression of spinal cord.
3. Kidney Malfunctioning: - Higher calcium level can cause kidney failure by reducing their ability to filter the blood.
4. Anemia: - It occurs on account of blood cells crowded out by cancerous cells.
Blood and urine tests: - Serum protein electrophoresis test to detect presence of m protein in the blood or Bence Jones proteins in urine. Tests to measure RBC and levels of calcium, uric acid and creatinine are also conducted.
Beta-2-microglobulin test is used to detect abnormal production of microglobulin.
1. Imaging: - Imaging scans like MRI, PET CT scans are used to detect brain damage.
2. Bone marrow examination:- It is administered to detect the presence of myeloma cells and the rate at which they are multiplying. It is also checked for chromosomal abnormalities using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques.
3. Staging and risk-stratification: -To determine the stage of progression of disease and its severity. If myeloma cells are present in excessive amount with no signs or symptoms, a regular monitoring is required. However, when symptoms are evident, treatment is necessary.
1. Intravenous drugs like Bortezomib (Velcade) to kill cancer cells by blocking action of proteasomes.
2. Oral administration of Thalidomide (Thalomid) and Lenalidomide (Revlimid) .
3. Corticosteroids like prednisone and dexamethasone
4. Stem cell transplantation along with chemotherapy to replace damaged bone marrow.
5. Radiation therapy to damage and kill plasma cells.
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