TPHA Test-Steps, Interpretation and Description

by Dr Vikram Chauhan Doctor


Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test is known as TPHA test. It is used to detect the antibodies in a patient against a causative agent of syphilis. This test is done to confirm the diagnosis of a physically examined patient of syphilis. Once a person is diagnosed for syphilis one should have to move forward for a treatment immediately. In this article we are going to study the TPHA test, how it could be done and what could be diagnosed with this test.


Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test is a confirmatory diagnosis of syphilis. It is done to detect the amount of antibodies present in the patient’s serum sample against the causative agent of syphilis. TPHA test helps to detect antibodies with the help of hemagglutination method. In this method sensitizing of red blood cells is to be done with treponema pallidum fragments. When a serum sample is infected with syphilis there is aggregation of cells on the surface of the test dish. Firstly, what is syphilis? Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease usually occurs by sexual intercourse or contact. Here a bacteria named treponema palladium is transferred via sexual contact and leads to syphilis. If diagnosed early then it can be treated easily so to confirm the diagnosis TPHA test is the best option. 

Steps of TPHA test

TPHA test is a normal blood routine test and does not require any preparations. Firstly a sample is taken by injecting the needle into a vein of the arm. Then later on it is forwarded to the further analysis. Then in the lab test procedure is carried out by utilizing a test card. Three wells of cards are used. In the first card 10uL of serum sample is added and 190L of diluents is added then mixed using a micropipette. After that in the second card add 75uL of control cells. Then comes to the third card, 75UL of tested cells are added. After adding these cells 25uL of diluted serum is added in each well and mixed thoroughly. The cards are then placed at room temperature for 45-60 minutes away from direct sunlight. 

Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test

Interpretation of TPHA Test

Interpretation of the TPHA test is done by the agglutination intensity that will range from – to + 4.

  • 4+- If there is a uniformity of the cells over the entire wall.
  • 3+- If most of the area of the well is covered by the cells uniformly.
  • 2+- If density is surrounded by a slight ring.
  • If the compact bottom is settled by a small clear center then the result can be negative.

If the TPHA test reports are negative then no further investigation is required. But if the TPHA test is positive then a patient is to be prescribed for other tests such as- MHATP and FTA-ABS.

Brief description about syphilis

Syphilis is occurred by the transmission of bacteria treponema palladium via sexual contact. If it is diagnosed earlier then it is easy to treat but in the later stage it may be life-threatening as it may damage your vital organs like heart, lungs, etc.

Symptoms of Syphilis are

Syphilis is divided into four stages and the symptoms may vary with each stage. In primary stage symptoms are: sore occur at the site of infection mainly around the genital area, rectum or anal region and even around the mouth. The sore is firm, round and painless. In secondary stage symptoms are- fever, skin rashes, swollen lymph nodes, muscle ache, joint pain, headache, sore throat, decreased appetite. In the latent stage symptoms are absent. In the tertiary stage patients may experience major medical conditions as in this stage there is damage to the heart, lungs and other vital organs.


So if you are experiencing these symptoms then visit for diagnosis as soon as possible.

Causes of Syphilis are

The main cause of syphilis is transmission of bacterium treponema pallidum. This bacterium enters your body via sexual contact. Here are some risk factors like touching the contaminated door knobs, bath tubs, tables, chairs, swimming pool, toilet seats and by sharing clothes. So avoid making contact with unfamiliar people and unfamiliar areas. Other risk factors are- unprotected sex, HIV, multiple sex partners and man having sex with man.


Here we comes through TPHA test that this test helps to confirm the diagnosis of syphilis that is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacterium treponema pallidium. So if one may experience any of the symptoms of syphilis then immediately seek diagnosis by your doctor and get a TPHA test as soon as possible. If you are diagnosed positive, don't worry, contact planet ayurveda experts and get your treatment done.

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About Dr Vikram Chauhan Senior   Doctor

273 connections, 2 recommendations, 802 honor points.
Joined APSense since, January 3rd, 2014, From chandigarh, India.

Created on Mar 10th 2022 02:05. Viewed 104 times.


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