Articles

COOLING TOWER DESIGN MANIFESTO

by Karthi Keyan article writer

 COOLING TOWER DESIGN MANIFESTO

 

ABSTRACT

The cooling towers are highly sophisticated devices based on latest design and technology. Its plantation has to meet the competence against natural disasters like seismic vibrations and hurricanes. It uses counter-flow mechanism as the basic designing program for the cooling tower operation. It allows the mechanical draft from the high stream fans of cooling towers which are automatically induced with special instruments. Its capacity varies from 33 to5,141 tons (144 to 22,596 KW). The stainless steel lingering the cooling towers are made of galvanized steel G-235(Z-725 Europe) with standard stainless steel types of either 304/316.  These are followed in accordance with the nominal standards by CTI and are all being certified by them. The massive cooling tower in the world are with the capacity of 14'x26' accompanied by big fans on either sides and with each cells of the tower of about 1,332 tons. Additionally 42’x26’ and 56'x26' cell configuration for the standard configuration of 14'x26' may need.

 

DESIGN MANIFESTO

PRINCIPLE

The operation of cooling tower happens in sequential steps from warm water flowing in to the tower and the end product of cold water collected out. At the top of the tower in the deck of water channel system warm water is pumped from the hot chamber. This warm water is allowed to slide over the wet collector chamber through large holed nozzles. Eventually during this process of water transportation the entry of air into this massive chamber also happens. Through the louvers air is pushed to the bottom of the tower. This air is then directed upwards against the gravity passing through the wet chamber. Both the air and water are allowed to linger during this stage. This stage helps to evaporate the hot water and thus able to maintain the cold water circulation throughout the system. This hot water which has been evaporated is sucked out using huge fans to the outer space. Finally the cooled water which has been collected through this process in the basin is then again pushed to the top of the tower. Repeating this process gives the cooling effect eventually.

IDEAL DRIFT REMOVERS

Drift elimination system is a vital step to be an eco-friend. This step is essential in any size cooling towers because it helps to remove dew drops from the water which have been drained in the tower. The drift eliminator pipes are made of inert polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This kind of plastic material is more efficient in being non stick to water molecules. This elimination helps in reducing the drift rate lesser than 0.001% which helps the water in the re-circulation area to move easily and quickly. Thus it helps the company to be cost effective in spending money on problems caused by drained water droplets. No necessity for more water consumption due to wastage caused by drifting. No water treatment measures or water maintenance against infection are needed and less use of chemicals to prevent infection. By this way our company is able to be economical and eco-friendly.

ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES

The alternative techniques can be used in piping installation on cooling towers for cost effectiveness and increasing efficiency. Aim is to reduce the pipe attachment externally to towers which are heavy money consuming. Instead of fixing pipes externally it is done internally in the tower on either sides of each cell in the tower. These two pipes are meant for inlet and outlet purpose with large opening and enclosed with anti-sludge rings on each so that clogging of water is prevented. These internal pipes also maintain the pressure and balance in the water circulation. Imagine if this alternative technique is not done internally and done externally to the tower, which would cost lot money for those massive pipes and its maintenance. No necessity for field balancing of the towers are needed which automatically neglects the use of valves for balancing the water flow through these huge external pipes. Thus JC is able to be more cost effective by using smart alternative techniques.

FILL DESIGN

Inert Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) is essential for the fill design of the pipes in the cooling tower. This PVC material is a high resistant chemical compound that can withstand against fire accidents. They are non-stick to water molecules hence resulting in very less chance for decay or development of any kind of water infection. PVC has resistance power of withstanding 130ºF water temperature to supply for the fill system without causing any internal damage to these PVC pipes of the fill. These special features of the PVC are likely to support Fill system in the cooling tower to perform air and water lingering for mass heat transfer. This heat transfer comes with decrease in pressure and evaporation of hot water so substantially PVC in the fill has to withstand the above consequences.

AIR LOUVER AND SCREENING SYSTEM

 The problem with air louver and screening system is that it is prone to be infected by algae and other bacterial infection inside the tower. This kind of issue is common in many cooling tower manufacturing companies around the world. It is because most of the companies use single pass louver system. In this single pass system there is always a higher chance for water splash caused by the circulating system. This splashing eventually increases when the fans are off. Thus the water droplets remaining in the tower end up in algal growth. "Sight-Tight" system for the louver and screening design in the tower is an advanced system. This design manifests with two pass louver system which reduces the chances of splash and even the missed out water droplets are collected through a sloping device internally. This same method is also followed for the basin also by blocking direct contact with sunlight also reduces the chances for algae formation. This technique is very helpful in reducing the cost effectiveness for water treatment and also in planting more massive fans for reduction in pressure fall.

 

WATER DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL

Size 40 PVC pipe and ABS plastics with nozzle 3/8 by 1 inch (9,5 mm by 25,4 mm for the water distribution channel system and water diffusion system respectively is universal.  The pressure count for spraying in cooling tower is 1 and 6 psig (6,9 and 42 kPa). This spray pressure is maintained throughout the process in the inlet. The piping system and water diffusion system performs lot useful features like protection against corrosion and quick pipes dismantling for thorough cleaning purpose. The minimal inlet opening for ABS diffusers works against clotting by water debris. In addition to this feature it also has anti-sludge ring which prevents against sedimentation also the spray pressure system has threaded end caps on all its branches, which induces in extracting debris.

CLIMATIC EQUILIBRIUM

Cooling towers are to be built in accordance with the climatic changes in any part of the world. Especially in cooler parts of the world. These cooling towers are constructed with complete encasement on all the wet decks inside the cooling tower. By doing this way ice formation in the fills of the tower is prevented. Thus the counter-flow fill is been able to function in the tower without any hindrance caused by cold winds or snow.


About Karthi Keyan Junior   article writer

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Joined APSense since, February 6th, 2013, From coimbatore, India.

Created on Dec 31st 1969 19:00. Viewed 0 times.

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